This episode is

sponsored by Audible. The special theory of

relativity tells us that one person’s past

may be another’s future. When time is relative,

paradoxes threaten. Today, we peer deeper

into Einstein’s theory to find that the immutable

ordering of cause and effect emerges when we discover the

causal geography of spacetime. Recently, we’ve been

talking about the weirdness of spacetime in the vicinity of

a black hole’s event horizon. Very soon, we’ll be

dropping below that horizon to peer at the interior

of the black hole. There, space and

time switch roles, but to truly understand

that bizarre statement, we need to think a little bit

more about how the flow of time is described in relativity. Today, we’re going to look at

the amazing geometric structure that time, or more accurately

causality, imprints on the fabric of spacetime. First, let’s recap a little bit

of Einstein’s special theory of relativity. There are two previous

episodes in particular that will be useful here if you

find you need more background. Special relativity tells us that

our experience of both distance and time are, well, relative. If I accelerate my rocket ship

to half the speed of light, the distance I need to

travel to a neighboring star shrinks dramatically

from my point of view. An observer I leave behind

with an amazing telescope, observes me traveling the

entire original distance but will perceive my

clock as having slowed. The combination of this length

contraction and time dilation allows both moving and

stationary observers to agree on how much

older every one looks at the end of the journey. Everyone agrees on the

number of ticks that occurred on everyone else’s clock. They just don’t agree on the

duration of all of those ticks. Reminder– time measured

by a moving observer on their own clock is

called proper time, but counting those clock ticks

isn’t the best way for everyone to agree on spacetime

relationships. There’s this thing called

the spacetime interval that relates observer dependent

perspectives on the length and duration of any journey that

all observers will agree on, even if they don’t

agree on the delta x and delta t of that journey. We’ve talked about it before,

but it’s a tricky concept to understand intuitively. But we want that intuition

because, more than proper time, the spacetime interval

defines the flow of causality. In relativity, 3D

space and 1D time become a 4D entity

called spacetime. To preserve our

sanity, we represent this on a spacetime diagram

plotting time and only one dimension of space. We’ll see our causal geometry

emerge plain as day, even in this simplified picture. There is no standing still

on a spacetime diagram. If I don’t move

through space, I still travel forward in time

at a speed of exactly one second per second according

to my proper time clock. Motion at a constant velocity

appears as a sloped line, and the time axis is scaled

so that the speed of light is a 45 degree line. Now, let’s say we have a

group of spacetime travelers. They start at the origin,

where x and t equals 0. They race away to the left

and the right for five seconds according to their own watches. They all travel at

different speeds, some close to the speed of

light, but never faster. The path they cut

through spacetime is called their world line. My world line is

only through time, and the tick marks

on the time axis correspond to my own

proper time clock ticks. The faster a traveler moves,

the longer their world line. That’s not just because

of their speed, though. To me, their clocks tick slow. They time their journey

on these slow clocks, so I perceive them

traveling for longer. Accounting for this, we find

that our spacetime travelers are arranged on a curve

that looks like this. This shape is a hyperbola. Drawing a connecting line at

the tick of every traveler’s proper time clock gives a

set of nested hyperbola, but these aren’t

just a pretty pattern. These curves are kind

of the contours defining the gradient of causality down

which time flows, and etched into spacetime by the equations

of special relativity. To understand why,

we need to see how these proper time contours

appear to other spacetime travelers. Instead of doing

that with equations, we can see it with geometry. First, we need to draw

the spacetime diagram from the perspective of

one of the other travelers. To transform the

diagram, we need to figure out what they see

as their space and time axes. Time is easy. They see themselves

as stationary, so their time axis is just their

own constant velocity world line. And their x-axis? Well, from my stationary

point of view, I define my x-axis as a long

string of spacetime events at different distances, but

that all occur simultaneously at time t equals 0. To observe those points,

I just wait around until their light

had time to reach me. At every future

tick of my clock, a signal arrives from

the left and the right, and I use that to build up a

set of simultaneous events, defining my t equals 0 x-axis. Our traveler does

the same thing, but from my point of

view, their clock is slow, so I see them register

signals at a different rate. At the same time,

they’re moving away from the signals

coming from the left and towards the ones

originating on the right, affecting which signals are

seen at a given instant. The traveler infers a set

of simultaneous events that, to me, are

not simultaneous, but there is no preferred

reference frame. Their sloped x-axis

is right for them. Even just doing

this graphically, we see that the

traveler’s x-axis is rotated by the same

angle as their time axis. That comes from

insisting that we all see the same speed

of light, 45 degrees on the spacetime diagram. Moving between these

reference frames is now a simple

matter of squaring up our traveler’s axes. In fact, we grid up the

diagram with a set of lines parallel to these new axes

and square up everything while maintaining our

intersection points. My world line is now

speeding off to the left, while our traveler

is motionless. We just performed a

Lorentz transformation, but using geometry

rather than math. This transformation allows you

to calculate how properties, like distance, time, velocity,

even mass and energy, shift between reference frames. But check out what

happens if I attach pins to all of the intersections

when I transform between frames. They trace out hyperbola. Those intersections represent

locations of spacetime events relative to the origin. They will always land on the

same hyperbola, no matter the observer’s reference frame. I told you that

these contours show where clocks moving

from the origin reach the same proper time

count, but more generally, each represents a single value

for the spacetime interval. The delta x and

delta t of the event at the end point of a

traveler’s world line might change depending

on who is watching, but the hyperbolic contour

that they landed on, the spacetime

interval, will not. This is because the spacetime

interval itself comes directly from the Lorentz transformation,

as the only measurement of spacetime separation that

is unchanging or invariant under that transformation. Now, we can finally get to

why this thing is so important and what it really represents. It may seem counter-intuitive

that an event very close to the origin

in both space and time can be separated

from that origin by the same spacetime interval

as an event that is very distant in both space and time. The hyperbolic shape seems

to demand that, but remember, it takes the same

amount of proper time to travel from the origin to

a nearby near-future event compared to a distant far future

event on the same contour. From the point of

view of a particle communicating some

causal influence, those points are equivalent. The spacetime interval

tracks this causal proximity. We can think of these

lines as contours on a sort of causal geography. The way I define the

spacetime interval, it becomes increasingly negative

in the forward time direction, so we can represent this as a

valley dropping away from me here at the origin. I naturally slide through

time by the steepest path, straight down. I can change that path

by expanding energy to change my velocity,

although doing so realigns the

contours so I always slide down the steepest path. There’s no point

anywhere downhill that I can’t reach as

long as I can get close enough to the speed of light. In fact, the nearest

downhill contour defines the forward light

cone for anyone anywhere on the spacetime diagram. But uphill is impossible

as long as the cosmic speed limit is maintained. Breaking that speed limit and

sliding uphill are equivalent. To reverse the direction of

your changing spacetime interval is to reverse the

direction of causality, to travel backwards in time. The spacetime diagram

we looked at today was for a flat or

Minkowski space, in which faster

than light travel is the only way to flip

your space time interval. But in the crazy curved

space within a black hole, it gets flipped for you. We’ll soon see how this

requirement of a forward causal evolution leads to

some incredible predictions when we try to calculate

the sub event horizon interval of spacetime. A big thank you to Audible for

sponsoring today’s episode, and also for making it possible

for me to research spacetime while riding crowded

New York subways. Lately, I’ve been zoning

out to Audible books from two other New Yorkers. Janna Levin’s “Black

Hole Blues” is a wonderful take

on the new window that gravitational waves

are opening on our universe. Also, Caleb Scharf’s

“Gravity’s Engines” gets into my favorite

space things of all– quasars, and especially

how important they are in the evolution

of the universe. Check them out, for

free if you like, at audible.com/spacetime

for your free 30 day trial. “Space Time” is possible

only through your support. Watching is, of course, a huge

help, so thanks for tuning in. But an extra thanks is warranted

to our Patreon supporters who throw in a few

bucks each month to help us cover the costs. And an extra, extra

thanks to David Nicholas, who’s supporting us

at the big bang level. David, we’re naming an

entire galaxy after you. It’s a beautiful barred spiral

galaxy in the Fornax cluster. It’ll be called David. We skipped comments last week

because I was at the beach, so today, we’re tackling

both phantom singularity and quasars. Michael Lloyd asks, “Is the

calculated infinite density of the core of a

black hole an artifact of the limitations of three

dimensional mathematics?” Well, maybe, sort of. One way out of the

mathematical singularity at the center of black

holes is with string theory, which proposes that particles

that we see in regular 4D spacetime result from

oscillations within many more coiled dimensions,

so-called strings. One idea is that the

inside of an event horizon is composed of a ball of raw

strings, a so-called fuzzball, and that no infinite

density exists. We’ll get back to

this another time. Jose Hernandez says that,

for a mathematician, infinity is just a number. For a physicist,

it means madness. Not true– everyone goes mad

thinking about infinities. Mathematician Georg Cantor

invented set theory, the mathematics we use to study

different types of infinity. He was in and out of sanitariums

throughout his later life. Joan Eunice asks whether there’s

a spot near a quasar where a stable orbit could be created,

and what would time dilation be like there? Well, the smallest stable

orbit around a black hole is the so-called innermost

stable circular orbit. It’s three times the

Schwarzschild shield radius for a non-rotating black hole. Below that, accreting material

spirals into the black hole very quickly, and

yeah, time dilation would be significant there. We actually do see the

effect of time dilation in some of the

x-ray light coming from right near the black hole. Ion atoms, orbiting

at around 10 times the Schwarzschild shield radius,

undergo an extremely energetic electron transition

that produces X-rays at a very particular frequency,

the ion K-alpha emission line. We see that these

x-rays are stretched out as they climb out of the black

hole’s gravitational well. That gravitational

redshift is the same thing as gravitational time dilation. Mike Cammiso asks

whether nuclear fusion occurs inside accretion disks. Well, although quasar

accretion disks can reach some pretty

crazy temperatures, they aren’t particularly dense. Stars are so good

at fusion, in part, because they’re the cause

of creating high densities. That said, it may be that

parts of the accretion disks sometimes become

gravitationally unstable and collapse, in

which case you might get some weird stardust-like

activity and some fusion. But accretion disks

are very poorly understood because they’re

too small to take images of, so this is all speculation. Bikram Sao asks how

large the original star must have been to produce

a supermassive black hole. Well, the answer is

probably very large, but nowhere near the mass of

the SMBHs that we see today. These giant black

holes have been growing since the dawn

of time by creating gas and by merging with

other black holes. The original seed

black holes may have been left over by

the deaths of an insanely large first generation of stars,

perhaps thousands of times the mass of the sun. But by now, some of those have

grown to billions of times the mass of the sun. Cinestar Productions

has a story for us. “When my dad was in

college, he needed one of those easy

classes for credit, so he took a class on

quasars and black holes in the universe. He was not a science student. He took the class

on astrophysics because he thought

it would be easy. Facepalm.” I hear you. And to all my students in

Astronomy 101 this semester, no, we’re not learning

about the star signs. Yes, it’s going to be

harder than you thought. Yes, there is a curve. No, watching “Space Time”

doesn’t count as extra credit, but it can’t hurt. Right?

These graphs are buzzing with what I've been seeing in differential equations class with equilibrium states, phase diagrams/planes. Can this intuition be backed up?

Can you make a stupid people version of this?

Is there a version of these talks without the music going on, please? I find the music quite distracting, on what are tricky enough subjects to understand as it is. Thanks

Thanks my brain hurts now đź¤Ż

please, Please, PLEASE make a video on Fractal Spacetime. I can't understand the math.

I'm betting that entanglement requires one or more additional dimensions. Thanks, I get about half of it….. Lorenz is way cool.

you should mention that the space-time diagram is just a multiplication table.

I'm sure I'm not understanding it correctly but I can't help but ask if we just never had eyes, we only knew our world through sound, does this reasoning not conclude nothing could go faster than sound? If so, then obviously the reasoning would be wrong.

Our Hypernova Supporters

Craig

PetersonJordanYoungIlluminati confirmed

You need grasses to understand causality

Doing this geometrically was HUGELY helpful to me. Thanks! I hate math, but I understand this.

What age of people watch this

Still the best (special) relativity video known to me đź‘Ť

I can usually follow these videos pretty well but I always get confused when talking about time/causality. Itâ€™s mind bending.

John David Best has his web site Vida Ä°nstitute. He put my articles page in 'Timeflow Theory' 'http://vidainstitute.org/?page_id=656'. Vida Institute is intersting site. And my web site is www.timeflow.org

In your opinion, discovery of a planet is more exciting. Or, as I've presented in the attached article, whether observing 'A very tiniest mass in the space, having completed its life, have been turning into energy' would be more exciting or not ? It is my belief that, this observation will be the proof of the General and the Special Theory of Relativity. This observation can be made only by NASA or ESA. I hope that I will be able to see this consequence while I'm still alive.

wow !

so I have always heard how different observers will disagree about what is simultaneous or even the order of events without really understanding how..

I guess now is the time on my world line that I did..

I will not sleep untill I understand this!! 2:30AM!!

Spacetime is the time itself. Tachions and tardions., fotons. The x,y,z coordinate system is useless. These premordial structures creates the the curved spacetime..

If I lost both legs on earth and then go close to a massive black hole half the speed of light and stay there for 5 years from my perspective I will never go back intime and regrow my legs….

It's probably too late to comment, but I can't stop thinking about this "relative to the observer" geometry of space time is just like how objects in our everyday lives – buildings, trees, whatever…look completely different, distorted or in perspective, depending on your position in 3D space, but we can all agree that a rectangle is a rectangle.

Saying â€śrelative to the observer is redundant and misleading. It makes it sound like the effect is just some funny optical illusion when it is in fact a physical effect.

I guess this explains why we still see dead stars that are really far away. Like if we get far enough away from earth we would start seeing â€śthe pastâ€ť but itâ€™s not really the past itâ€™s just what the observer from that point in space sees.

Because of Causality folding spacetime is immposible

Why do I find this stuff easier than the pragmatic work I have to do to complete my engineering degree.. (rhetorical)

i allways have a hard time to believeÂ thatÂ when you travel at Â the speed of light (which is possible for photons(bosons) but Â impossible for humansÂ because mass becomes infinite..) time stops ..and the UniversÂ shrinks to Â a "point "Â just like befor the big bang …but most of these photons Â end up somewhere in our univers …so we can see (capture)them â€¦..So, the Â Univers aswell as the big bang, the stars , space and time etcÂ .Â is only a realityÂ for beings like us …having mass and Â living in a particular kind of Â 3 space dimentionsÂ and 1 time dimention Â ..?

About madness and infinity, if you can find the BBC Documentary "Dangerous Knowledge" (I hear Google can help you reach fresh streams), it's a great look at what some thinking can do to men. Both an amazing and frankly frightening perspective. Georg Cantor is one of the 4 mathematicians discussed in the doc along with Ludwig Boltzmann, Kurt GĂ¶del and Alan Turing.

Lived in many apartment buildings. One man's floor is another man's ceiling.

Don't know what that has to do with the topic, it just popped into my head listening to Matt.

Such a high-quality, high value video. Thank you!! I'm a curious 51 year old layman, using this and other videos to scratch that itch (yearning, really) to understand more about whatever IS is.

I donâ€™t understand what is meant when you say that two observers disagree with the order of events. I understand that on a cosmic scale, but here on earth we can pretty much agree George Washington was born before you. So maybe this can be explained differently.

Is it true that there is only one absolute speed that is the same for all reference frames, the speed of causality?

I freakin love this show.

So "proper time" is equivalent to the typical healthy "body temperature", that is an average of rates of superimposed quantum orbital in resonance imaging "cooling curves", brachistochrone geometry, drawn from the standing wave positioning properties of Temporal Superposition-point Singularity. Time is modulated spacing,

space is frequency modulation timing,

the cause-effect of Eternity-now Superposition-point Singularity e-Pi-i resonance imaging.. holography.

It is "written" by the ultimate dot-matrix interference positioning printer, "inked" by Quantum Operator Fields Modulation Mechanism of probabilities in potential possibilities. Or a qualified Artist.

Remember the days of manual drawing of figures with a ruler and compass, ..points extend to lines, and lines to curves, ..all based on axial-tangential In-form-ation formulae.

This is why we're pre-occupied by emulating spacing in respect of Numerical fixed timing instead of integrated Calculus timing trajectories,

these are the curricula of recorded and practiced historical precedents here-now, because it's what we believe is the past/future?

Actuality is continuous and eternal constant (standing-wave/interference) creation. (The uncertainty principle requires eternal doubt about absolutes, so there's no "proper time" except for the punctuated equilibrium probability range,

..zero-infinity in unity, that is evident in an analog clock face)

All the history of Geometer's development of what amounts to "Quantum Operator" sketching out of mental timing functions, is perceived experience of mechanical standing wave positioning constants.

Typically by "counterfactual reasoning", Mathematicians/Musicians, Artists of density and intensity probabilistic models of In-form-ation, begin with time duration constants, "in the Interval", a Musical term used to coordinate the expression of intended sounds that, like reflected light, is arranged in AM-FModules of patterning by skilled Artists.

(Mechanics is the geometrical art of quantization..)

Sciencing cleans up the naturally occurring processes of probability in potential possibility involved.

Geometry applies only for known things only. Such as distance between two objects

It does not tell how the objects are generated.

And equations such as crossing straught lines using y intercept gradient or slope of a line crossing the y axis or sone where in the plane, sone constant……

geonetry doesn't deal with real lines but imaginary lines. .

Space time philosophy of bigbang theiries equations data" are based on such ewuations which are myths. Geometry applies only to the real/created world. They don't know how the universe is created. Right?Thanks.

So if I picked the stocks that I think will be most valuable in 100 years. All I need to is to take a trip round our solar system a few dozen times very near the speed of light. Thus when I return, I will only be a few years older but that 100 shares of SpaceX, or google, or Disney will be worth millions assuming it climbed over then next 100 years?

Actually, I believe, thus think he is reading it.

No clue what he talking. 5/5

I need a bit of insight from real physics/astrophysics majors, are the videos posted on this channel generally accurate to the way physics/astrophysics is taught in grad/undergrad? Or is it much more complicated than this (obviously because of actually working WITH the mathematics, not just shown an equation and being taught what each variable represents and moving on) im an astrophysics/cosmology enthusiast and I would like to major in this subject. Please…. any sort of feedback will be greatly appreciated.

Would cosmic inflation on a space time diagram be represented as half a hyperbola stretching in opposite directions perpendicular to time, and exponentially crossing the 45 degree line which represents the speed of causality?

It would be great if you left a comment giving a time where you skip the background needed to understand the content, some of your viewers are physicists or physics students. đź™‚

Ooops just noticed the nasa shirt , no more of this guy for me

nunsens

But who is accelerating? The spaceship or the Earth? Isn't that relative?

Love this show!

Does the Space Time Interval equation break if youâ€™re traveling the speed of light?

Sorry for the stupid question.

I think I'd need at least half a fifth of Jack Daniels for all of this to make sense….. at least in my space time.

Gorillas exist simultaneously in all frames of reference

ERROR.

Brain.exe stopped working

I believe space time in a black hole can have an effect on the surrounding space of the event horizon (and beyond.) During QDF dark matter particles will "jump" to an area with-in its past path. That jump causes space around a black hole to change (extremely slightly but nonetheless affecting space time.) WIth that said, normal space time can be affected and may not follow spacetime intervals to a T. If you think about that even deeper you'll realize that time around a black hole will also fluctuate causing some pretty interesting anomalies which should be cautioned if ever we are fortunate to study one at a closer range (basically, if humanity survives.)

I brought my bucket…..

Edit: I definitely needed the đź§ bucket. Also shouldnâ€™t have smoked weed before this video…..

The way that you visually exampled the Lorenz transformation was amazing, had a good understanding of the mathematics but this would have saved me hours or study trying to comprehend it years ago, this is amazing

Hypothetically, if you could entangle two electrons, one stays on earth, and the other is sent off near the speed of light, how would "real time" behave for the electrons, while existing in a state of time dialation? Or rather, could changes between entangled particals be instantaneous despite the time dialation?

Unless Diavolo said Un'altra persona

I was just coming to see if anyone understood this or if in fact I was the only one who didn't. I'm glad I'm not the only one

1:30ff: >

â€¦the distance I need to travel to a neighbouring star shrinks dramatically – from my POV.No, the distance

the star needsto travel "shrinks dramatically" for in my own rest frame where the distance is shorter I don't move but the star does.07:05f: >

â€¦even mass and energy shiftâ€¦Actually

momentumand energy which form a 4-vector.Is this the basis for the determinism line of thinking or merely more evidence of it?

I should stop watching PBS Space Time. Physics is too crazy !

There are only two certainties in life: death and causality

Got it!

You dont understund that Nucleus of atoms expanding and recycling dark expanding pushing force which have example nature of expanding light.

Expanding light waves is dark for us, but we know, there is waves because we can register photons.

But almost all expanding light mass is in dark expanding waves.

Expanding lights interactive with eachother and get eachother expanding faster and faster. So expanding light moving faster and faster same way what matter and light expanding.

đź¤”

So, Dark Expanding light waves interactive with eachother and get eachother expanding faster. Thats why expanding light moving faster and faster same way what matter and light expanding.

Explanation for

1. Bending light near star and galaxy

2. Cosmologys way redshifted light

3. Gravity redshifted light

So, there is no expanding space!

No curving space!

Space is infinity 3 D place which is nothing.

đź¤”

Oh my god thank you I finally got it??? I have wondered my ENTIRE LIFE, as a person who is absolutely dying to explore the galaxy, why the speed of light is such a hard limit. Understanding that it is not the speed of light, but rather the speed of causality in space-time, makes it SO MUCH CLEARER. (Also, time dilation, which was a thing I accepted but never intuitively understood until now!!) aaaaa this is so cool thank you

I know less now than before…

I didnt know I needed imagery of Matt riding a EM drive was something I needed at 7 in the morn-wait is that Watcher jpg SPECIFICALLY from Deadpool Kills the Marvel Universe???

Non esiste la casualita' il tutto e' programmato specifico e' determinato

If something moves faster than the speed of light wouldn't it dissapeared from existence because there wouldn't be a possibility of having an observer.

It would still be there but nothing would know.

Could that also be the case of dark matter.

If its moving faster than the speed of light its mass would be extremely high.

lost after 6mins gg

One observation why are alluding to changes in causality when actually is changes in time of observed events by observer. Causality is series of event influenced in sequence by forces Caused by one event affecting another. Nothing discussed here could change this change only the time in the chain is changed by different observers with different relative speed.

One observation why are alluding to changes in causality when actually is changes in time of observed events by observer. Causality is series of event influenced in sequence by forces Caused by one event affecting another. Nothing discussed here could change this change only the time in the chain is changed by different observers with different relative speed.

One the most mind-blowing videos on this channel (and thatâ€™s saying a lot!).

â€śSpace Timeâ€ť should make a whole playlist revolving around Time and Temporality in contemporary physics.

Awesome video, made a few concepts with space dilation really click for me.

A fish might jump, but it will always return to the water.

can you make video about whorm holes, what possibilities arrive when we teleport while near light speed.

you mean

acceleration time

speed 3sec

more speed 2sec

more speed 1sec

more speed 0sec

more speed -1sec

more speed -2sec it's like you move from your home at 9am and reach your office at 7am

Then why don't a bullet hit any object before you trigger it.

your fucked up , time is not a thing you change , the speed things move just screws with your perception of the object/at a distance great enough to decieve your eyes

Here is my question. I have come to a more informed understanding of general relativity watching your videos than I had before but am probably woefully incomplete still. However, as I understand it the faster one travels in space the more one moves along the spatial dimensions and thus the less one moves along the time dimension. Thus time moves more slowly from your perspective than someone who is not moving as fast as you or at all.

Given this then I think it has been explained that the photon which travels always in a vacuum at the speed of light does not from its perspective appear to move at all in time and thus to the photon the moment it is created is as visible as the moment it is absorbed. This is a weird thing to think about.

So here is my question about the singularity of a black hole. If the gravitational well of a black hole is such that it warps spacetime such that time is stopped at the point of the scharzchild radius and one has to have a velocity greater than the speed of light or causality which is impossible to escape the gravitational well then can we not assume that what is happening is that time is squished by the gravitational pull to the point that one cannot move along the time axis.

The gravitational well warps space around it, slowing time from the perspective of an outside observer. Does time expand for the person entering the black hole approaching the Scharzchild radius until at the point the observer enters the well then time has expanded so that all moments are experienced simultaneously. Time is stopped and gravitational acceleration is equivalent to actual acceleration. So like the photon would not a particle at the Schwarzchild radius exist at all points on the time line.

However given that nothing can ever reach the speed of light then would that mean nothing can ever enter the black hole and cross the Scharzchild radius. So there can be no particles entering the black hole. The process of acceleration would occur until everything was converted to energy and thus the entire mass of the black hole would exist as the Scharzchild radius. As new material is caught by the black hole then the radius grows.

Essentially then is a black hole just one large cosmically massive quantum particle like a proton or an electron. With nothing inside of it, not even space.

I am sure there is a great deal wrong with my conjecture but I don't know enough to know what that is!

Can you please help me out?

I thought I understood causailty yesterday. I guess not.

Is that Slim Pickens from Dr.Strangelove at 1:25?

http://sensesofcinema.com/2015/book-reviews/dr-strangelove-peter-kramer/

I just figured out why the Minkowski is true. Take a proton as the maximum density of matter in space. If it has a radius of a sphere the sphere is an elliptic plane. The plane's points can be mapped onto the hyperboloid outside the sphere where everything is projected into the speed of light like distant objects we see going faster and faster with distance. The x,y plane describes motion through distance while the iz axis maps motion through time at the speed of light since everything outside the sphere is projected to the speed of light. This is a degenerate complex space.

You were having too much fun on that rocket lol

Big band theory breaks the causality. Particles or body of observer has arrived in our place before CMB. From the CMB perspective our body particles traveled to the past…

In this inflation theory particles follow the universe like moving faster than light, though light not…

Observer observes an effect, and thus participates in this effect, which causes his existence. Clear break of causality.

Hi, just a quick question… so is possible to travel "backwards" on time?

What about that Dr Strangelove reference

I am a master in physics. Couldn't understand anything. Might be retarded. So gonna watch it again x 3.

Aliens are teaching this in elementary class

I can't pay attention to what you are saying bc I'm focused on the music behind your videos. I love the information but I can't help noticing the music/beat

Does he even understand what he is saying? I feel like it all checks out but wow.

I like your beard